Name of Student : _______________________________Class XII- _______ Date ___________
Teacher : Mrs. Simonette Tenido Brebenariu
What Would You Do If ? By Joan Baez
Fred: OK. So you're a pacifist. What would you do if someone were, say, attacking your grandmother?
Joan: Attacking my poor old grandmother?
Fred: Yeah, you're in a room with your grandmother and there's a guy about to attack her and you're standing there. What would you do?
Joan: I'd yell, "Three cheers for Grandma!" and leave the room."
Fred: No, seriously. Say he had a gun and he was about to shoot her. Would you shoot him first?
Joan: Do I have a gun?
Joan: No. I'm a pacifist, I don't have a gun.
Fred: Well, I say you do.
Joan: All right. Am I a good shot?
Joan: I'd shoot the gun out of his hand.
Fred: No, then you're not a good shot.
Joan: I'd be afraid to shoot. Might kill Grandma.
Fred: Come on, OK, look. We'll take another example. Say, you're driving a truck. You're on a narrow road with a sheer cliff on your side. There's a little girl sitting in the middle of the road. You're going too fast to stop. What would you do?
Joan: I don't know. What would you do?
Fred: I'm asking you. You're the pacifist.
Joan: Yes, I know. All right, am I in control of the truck?
Joan: How about if I honk my horn so she can get out of the way?
Fred: She's too young to walk. And the horn doesn't work.
Joan: I swerve around to the left of her since she's not going anywhere.
Fred: No, there's been a landslide.
Joan: Oh. Well then, I would try to drive the truck over the cliff and save the little girl.
Fred: Well, say there's someone else in the truck with you. Then what?
Joan: What's my decision have to do with my being a pacifist?
Fred: There's two of you in the truck and only one little girl.
Joan: Someone once said if you have a choice between a real evil and a hypothetical evil, always take the real one.
Joan:: I said, why are you so anxious to kill off all the pacifists?
Fred: I'm not. I just want to know what you'd do if...
Joan: If I was in a truck with a friend driving very fast on a one-lane road approaching a dangerous impasse where a ten-month old girl is sitting in the middle of the road with a landslide on one side of her and a sheer drop-off on the other.
Fred: That's right.
Joan: I would probably slam on the brakes, thus sending my friend through the windscreen, skid into the landslide, run over the little girl, sail off the cliff and plunge to my own death. No doubt Grandma's house would be at the bottom of the ravine and the truck would crash through her roof and blow up in her living room where she was finally being attacked for the first, and last, time.
Fred: You haven't answered my question. You're just trying to get out of it...
Joan: - I'm really trying to say a couple of things. One is that no one knows what they'll do in a moment of crisis and hypothetical questions get hypothetical answers. I'm also hinting that you've made it impossible for me to come out of the situation without having killed one or more people. Then you say, 'Pacifism is a nice idea, but it won't work'. But that's not what bothers me.
Fred: What bothers you?
Joan: Well, you might not like it because it's not hypothetical.
It's real. And it makes the assault on Grandma look like a garden party. Fred: What's that?
Joan: I'm thinking about how we put people through a training process so they'll find out the really good, efficient ways of killing. Nothing incidental like trucks and landslides. Just the opposite, really. You know, how to growl and yell, kill and crawl and jump out of airplanes. Real organized stuff. Hell, you have to be able to run
a bayonet through Grandma's middle.
Fred: That's something entirely different.
Joan: Sure. And don't you see it's much harder to look at, because its real, and it's going on right now? Look. A general sticks a pin into a map. A week later a bunch of young boys are sweating it out in a jungle somewhere, shooting each other's arms and legs off, crying, praying and losing control of their bowels. Doesn't it seem stupid to you?
Fred: Well, you're talking about war.
Joan: Yes, I know. Doesn't it seem stupid to you?
Fred: What do you do instead, then? Turn the other cheek, I suppose.
Joan: No. Love thine enemy but confront his evil. Love thine enemy. Thou shalt not kill.
Fred: Yeah, and look what happened to him.
Joan: He grew up.
Fred: They hung him on a damn cross is what happened to him. I don't want to get hung on a damn cross.
Joan: You won't.
Joan: I said you don't get to choose how you're going to die. Or when. You can only decide how you are going to live. Now.
Fred: Well, I'm not going to go letting everybody step all over me, that's for sure.
Joan: Jesus said, "Resist not evil." The pacifist says just the opposite. He says to resist evil with all your heart and with all your mind and body until it has been overcome.
Fred: I don't get it.
Joan: Organized nonviolent resistance. Gandhi. He organized the Indians for nonviolent resistance and waged nonviolent war against the British until he'd freed India from the British Empire. Not bad for a first try, don't you think?
Fred: yeah, fine, but he was dealing with the British, a civilized people. We're not.
Joan: Not a civilized people?
Fred: Not dealing with a civilized people. You just try some of that stuff on the Russians.
Joan: You mean the Chinese, don't you?
Fred: Yeah, the Chinese, try it on the Chinese.
Joan: Oh, dear. War was going on long before anybody dreamed up communism. It's just the latest justification for self-righteousness. The problem isn't communism. The problem is consensus. There's a consensus out there that it's OK to kill when your government decides who to kill. If you kill inside the country, you get in trouble. If you kill outside the country, right time, right season, latest enemy, you get a medal. There are about 130 nation-states, and each of them thinks it's a swell idea to bump off all the rest because he is more important. The pacifist thinks there is only one tribe. Three billion members. They come first. We think killing any member of the family is a dumb idea. We think there are more decent and intelligent ways of settling differences. And man had better start investigating these other possibilities because if he doesn't, then by mistake or by design, he will probably kill off the whole damn race.
Fred: It's human nature to kill. Something you can't change.
Joan: Is it? If it's natural to kill, why do men have to go into training to learn how? There's violence in human nature, but there's also decency, love, kindness. Man organizes, buys, sells, pushes violence. The nonviolent wants to organize the opposite side. That's all nonviolence is - organized love.
Fred: You're crazy.
Joan: No doubt. Would you care to tell me the rest of the world is sane? Tell me that violence has been a great success for the past five thousand years, that the world is in fine shape, that wars have brought peace, understanding, democracy, and freedom to humankind and that killing each other has created an atmosphere of trust and hope. That it's grand for one billion people to live off of the other two billion, or that even if it hadn't been smooth going all along, we are now at last beginning to see our way though to a better world for all, as soon as we get a few minor wars out of the way.
Fred: I'm doing OK.
Joan: Consider it a lucky accident.
Fred: I believe I should defend America and all that she stands for. Don't you believe in self-defense?
Joan: No, that's how the mafia got started. A little band of people who got together to protect peasants. I'll take Gandhi's nonviolent resistance.
Fred:: I still don't get the point of nonviolence.
Joan:: The point of nonviolence is to build a floor, a strong new floor, beneath which we can no longer sink. A platform which stands a few feet above napalm, torture, exploitation, poison gas, nuclear bombs, the works. Give man a decent place to stand. He's been wallowing around in human blood and vomit and burnt flesh, screaming how it's going to bring peace to the world. He sticks his head out of the hole for a minute and sees a bunch of people gathering together and trying to build a structure above ground in the fresh air. 'Nice idea, but not very practical', he shouts and slides back into the hole. It was the same kind of thing when man found out the world was round. He fought for years to have it remain flat, with every proof on hand that it was not flat at all. It had no edge to drop off or sea monsters to swallow up his little ship in their gaping jaws.
Fred: How are you going to build this practical structure?
Joan: From the ground up. By studying, experimenting with every possible alternative to violence on every level. By learning how to say no to the nation-state, 'NO' to war taxes, 'NO' to military conscription, 'NO' to killing in general, 'YES' to co-operation, by starting new institutions which are based on the assumption that murder in any form is ruled out, by making and keeping in touch with nonviolent contacts all over the world, by engaging ourselves at every possible chance in dialogue with people, groups, to try to change the consensus that it's OK to kill.
Fred: : It sounds real nice, but I just don't think it can work.
Joan: : You are probably right. We probably don't have enough time. So far, we've been a glorious flop. The only thing that's been a worse flop than the organization of nonviolence has been the organization of violence.
This reading is from The Class of Nonviolence, prepared by Colman McCarthy of the Center for Teaching Peace, 4501 Van Ness Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20016 202/537-1372
Prepared by : Mrs. Simonette Tenido Brebenariu
Teacher in English, Liceul Teoretic Traian Doda Caransebes
School Year 2010-2011
Name of Student : ______________________________ Class XII - ______ Date __________
Grammar: Modal Verb ( WOULD )
Would is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use would mainly to:
• talk about the past
• talk about the future in the past
• express the conditional mood
We also use would for other functions, such as:
• expressing desire, polite requests and questions, opinion or hope, wish and regret...
Structure of Would
subject + would + main verb
The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to").
subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ She would like tea.
- She would not like whisky.
? Would she like coffee?
• Would is never conjugated. It is always would or 'd (short form).
• The main verb is always the bare infinitive.
The main verb is always the bare infinitive. We cannot say:
I would to like coffee.
Be careful! Would and had have the same short form 'd:
He'd finished. (He had finished.)
He'd like coffee. (He would like coffee.)
Use of Would
would: Talking about the past
We often use would as a kind of past tense of will or going to:
• Even as a boy, he knew that he would succeed in life.
• I thought it would rain so I brought my umbrella.
Using would as as a kind of past tense of will or going to is common in reported speech:
• She said that she would buy some eggs. ("I will buy some eggs.")
• The candidate said that he wouldn't increase taxes. ("I won't increase taxes.")
• Why didn't you bring your umbrella? I told you it would rain! ("It's going to rain.")
We often use would not to talk about past refusals:
• He wanted a divorce but his wife would not agree.
• Yesterday morning, the car wouldn't start.
We sometimes use would (rather like used to) when talking about habitual past behaviour:
• Every weekday my father would come home from work at 6pm and watch TV.
• Every summer we'd go to the seaside.
• Sometimes she'd phone me in the middle of the night.
• We would always argue. We could never agree.
would: Future in past
When talking about the past we can use would to express something that has not happened at the time we are talking about:
• In London she met the man that she would one day marry.
• He left 5 minutes late, unaware that the delay would save his life.
We often use would to express the so-called second and third conditionals:
• If he lost his job he would have no money.
• If I had won the lottery I would have bought a car.
Using the same conditional structure, we often use would when giving advice:
• I wouldn't eat that if I were you.
• If I were in your place I'd refuse.
• If you asked me I would say you should go.
Sometimes the condition is "understood" and there does not have to be an "if" clause:
• Someone who liked John would probably love John's father. (If someone liked John they would probably love John's father.)
• You'd never know it. (for example: If you met him you would never know that he was rich.)
• Why don't you invite Mary? I'm sure she'd come.
Although there is always a main verb, sometimes it is understood (not stated) as in:
• I'd like to stay. | I wish you would. (would stay)
• Do you think he'd come? | I'm sure he would. (would come)
• Who would help us? | John would. (would help us)
would: Desire or inclination
• I'd love to live here.
• Would you like some coffee?
• What I'd really like is some tea.
would: Polite requests and questions
• Would you open the door, please? (more polite than: Open the door, please.)
• Would you go with me? (more polite than: Will you go with me?)
• Would you know the answer? (more polite than: Do you know the answer?)
• What would the capital of Nigeria be? (more polite than: What is the capital of Nigeria?)
would: Opinion or hope
• I would imagine that they'll buy a new one.
• I suppose some people would call it torture.
• I would have to agree.
• I would expect him to come.
• Since you ask me I'd say the blue one is best.
• I wish you would stay. (I really want you to stay. I hope you will stay.)
• They don't like me. I'm sure they wish I'd resign.
Note that all of these uses of would express some kind of distance or remoteness:
• remoteness in time (past time)
• remoteness of possibility or probability
• remoteness between speakers (formality, politeness)
would: Presumption or expectation
• That would be Jo calling. I'll answer it.
• We saw a police helicopter overhead yesterday morning. | Really? They would have been looking for those bank robbers.
• He would seem to be getting better. (less certain than: He seems to be getting better.)
• It would appear that I was wrong. (less certain than: It appears that I was wrong.)
• They would say that, wouldn't they?
• John said he didn't steal the money. | Well, he would, wouldn't he?
would that: Regret (poetic/rare) - with clause
This rare, poetic or literary use of would does not have the normal structure:
• Would that it were true! (If only it were true! We wish that it were true!)
• Would that his mother had lived to see him become president.
Propozitie principala Propozitie secundara
Type I Future Present Simple(actiune simultana)
Present Present Perfect (actiune anterior-prioritara)
este o conditie deschisa, probabila
Type II Present Conditional Past Tense
S+should/would+V (inf. scurt) to be-were la toate persoanele
este o actiune improbabila, ipotetica, respinsa, ireala (as merge, ai merge,...etc)
Type III Past Conditional Past Perfect
S+should/would+have+V(forma a III a)
este o conditie imposibila
As fi mers la cinematograf/mergeam la cinema daca as fi avut bani/ aveam bani.
NOTA:could tine loc de should sau would
Verbe modale in propozitia conditionala
Verbe: will, would si should apar in propozitia conditionala cand au sensul:
• Will=vointa (la prezent)
Ex: If you will come=if he wants to come, if he is willing to come
Won’t=refuz (la prezent)
Ex: If they won’t go= if they don’t want to go= if they refuse to go
• Would=vointa (la trecut)
Ex: If she would sing=if she wanted to sing= if she was willing to sing
Wouldn’t=refuz (la trecut)
Ex: If they wouldn’t come= if they didn’t want to come
• Should+infinitive=in conditional tip 1 si 2 cu sensul de intamplare
Ex: (Daca se intampla sa vina...) If he happens to come/If he should come
Omiterea lui If
Se face in scopuri pur stilistice, folosind procedeul inversiune(pentru tipul II si III)
Tipul II: Should he come?
Tipul III: I wouldn’ have come if I hadn’t been invited. Hadn’t been invited, I wouldn’t have come. (Sa nu fi fost invitat, nu veneam)
Inlocuirea lui If
Unless, but for, in case, on condition that, so long as/provided/providing (that) suppose/supposing (that)
But for If were not for=daca n-ar fi
If it hadn’t been for= daca n-ar fi fost
In case=in caz ca
On condition that=cu conditia sa
So long as/provided/providing (that) =atat timp cat reda ideea de limitare, restrictie
Ex: What will happened if it rains tomorrow Suppose/supposing, suppose if rains tomorrow
Without(uneori)= but for
For Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u0I-Bhvm0Us Songs Using Conditionals ( If Clauses )
Prepared by : Prof. Simonette Tenido Brebenariu School Year 2010-2011